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SMALL HOUSE PROJECTS IN JAPAN HOUSING EXPERIMENTS FOR OPEN-BUILDING CONCEPT

Abstract
By : Nobuhisa M., Shin M., Eiichi T

 
Focusing on small houses has become one of the recent trends in housing design in Japan, as has been observed in many house design works. Periodical coverage can tell that the number of such works has clearly been increasing since the 90s, as compared with the 70s and 80s. The trend of small houses was also observed in the 50s. In those postwar years of economic growth, it was driven by the conditions of the time, such as supply and housing shortages and urban centralization. Today's social conditions are significantly different from those in the 50s, and naturally, the whole concept of small houses has greatly changed from the past. In this research, we evaluate the experiments of small houses, from the view of the idea of sustainability and open building concept. Specifically, the study compares the small houses of the 50s and those after 1990 to examine their differences or similarities in terms of size, structure and building systems. And thus clarify how industrialization and standardization reflect on these experiments. The former period, most were constructed on wood, with traditional construction method. The purpose of design was rather how to adapt the industrialization to the traditional construction and how to realize the modern way of living in the smallest space, than fulfillment of flexibility. Moreover, low cost was also included in the design purpose. In latest examples, the "small" means "small building area" rather than "small space for life and minimal cost for construction". The experimental projects were conducted by the intention exploring new possibilities and diversities of space design, with various highly industrialized materials. The small houses after 1990 can be regarded as experimental efforts to explore new approaches to skeletons within the context of urban tissue.
Keywords :Small House, Experimental House, Floor Area, Building Area, Japan.

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