In Turkey, the process of squatterisation can best be traced to the increase in its urban population from 24 percent in
1950 to 59 percent in 2000. In the periods up to the present, the prevention, improvement and renewal of squatter
settlements were not achieved within the existing legal framework and planning structure; and their urban quality has
The aim of this article is to discuss the upgrading of squatter settlements through a mitigation process considering the
possibility of an earthquake in Istanbul. The target groups of this upgrading study are the squatter dwellers and their
In getting prepared for the predicted big Istanbul earthquake, the improvement of squatter housing is extremely important
for the existing urban housing stock. With this aim, the undesirable consequences of a possible natural disaster in
various squatter settlements in Istanbul were scrutinised. Also, earthquake-forecasting reports were analysed in conjunction
with squatter maps to extract data for the purpose of upgrading squatter settlements through rehabilitation,
reconstruction and reinforcement at the urban and architectural levels with amelioration of damage after an earthquake.
In the article, a model is proposed which includes measures to transform squatter zones into healthy areas by
means of simple reinforcement and contemporary solutions.
This article is based on a research project requested and sponsored by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality during
Keywords : Squatter Settlements, Earthquake Risk, Upgrading Model, Participation, Design Principles
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