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By : Simon Siggelsten, Birgitta Nordquist, Stefan Olander

Individual metering and charging (IMC) allows energy costs to be apportioned among tenants in multi-apartment buildings based on their own energy use. This can result in reduced energy use due to an increased saving behaviour by tenants, which has caught the attention of the European Parliament. In the EU-directive 2012/27/EU there is a requirement for IMC to be installed by December 31, 2016 in multi-apartment buildings. Two techniques are mentioned in the directive for IMC: individual consumption meters and individual heat cost allocators. Either of these two techniques can be used as a method to measure the supplied energy to an apartment. Another method, not mentioned in the EU-directive, is temperature metering which means that the heating cost is instead based on measurements of the actual temperatures through sensors in certain locations in the apartment. However, some shortcomings have been identified with the aforementioned methods. The purpose of this study is to investigate how internal heat production, solar radiation, an apartmentís location within the building and local defects in the building envelope affect the accuracy of IMC. The Energy demands of three apartments in different locations within the building have been simulated in the computer program VIP-Energy. The results of energy calculations prove that the accuracy of IMC is highly questionable in some of the investigated cases. The implication of the study is that it is difficult to measure the actual heat used for an individual apartment, which obstructs accurate and fair apportioning of heating costs among individual tenants.
Keywords: EU-Directive, Energy Use, IMC, Apartment Building.

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